Matt at LFD Research has a series of “high energy” research projects up on YouTube. In the one below, he looks at the hydraulic energy transfer of different weights of .223/5.56 bullets.
Frankly, I was a bit surprised by the destructive potential of 40 grain bullets. I can see why they are good for varmint hunting. It does make me wonder what a gelatin test would show insofar as penetration.
Matt has been a guest on The Polite Society Podcast in the past to talk about his research. I think this type of home-grown amateur research is interesting because it is something that we can all do.